# Chapter 7 Conditional Execution

The functions discussed in Chapter 6 all had a simple and rather
rigid structure: Exactly the same computations were carried out in the same order,
regardless of what the input arguments were. To allow the code to become more flexible
and adapt to the input arguments, we need additional “control flow” constructs
which can decide whether or not to execute certain computations. The corresponding
“if/else” constructs are no functions but special “reserved” statements in the
*R* language.

In addition to the conditional execution, covered in this chapter, “control flow” also encompasses so-called “loops”, covered in the next Chapter 8, that allow some computations to be carried out multiple times or as often as required.

To illustrate flow control graphically, we use a basic (and not so serious) flow chart on how to do homework. This shows two conditional executions in the first two steps (“Do you have homework?” and “Is there something else you’d rather do?”) and then a repetitive execution (a “while loop” for “Is the homework due in less than 12 hours”?).

There are three ‘different’ conditional statements we will go trough in this chapter.

**If statements:** Single expression with corresponding instruction.

**If**you are hungry: Eat something.**If**the alarm clock rings: Get up.

**If-else statements:** Single expression with corresponding and alternative “else” instruction.

**If**the traffic light is green: Walk.**Else:**Stop.**If**the coffee cup is empty: Refill.**Else:**Drink.

**Multiple if statatements:** Multiple expressions with corresponding instructions.

**If**warm and dry outside: Wear a T-shirt.**Else if**warm and rainy: T-shirt and a jacket.**Else if**cold and dry: Sweater.**Else:**Stay home.

As correctly declaring these statements critically depends on the logical conditional, let us
first take a closer look at working with logical expressions in *R* before proceeding
to using these in the construction of conditional statements.

## 7.1 Logical expressions

The basis of all these decisions are logical expressions using relational and
logical operators (as well as value matching). We have already seen the
different operators available in *R* in Chapter 4.5.
**If** you need a refresh on this topic, please go trough the corresponding section again
or check `?Comparison`

, `?logic`

, and `?match`

. **Else** proceed.

Logical expressions always return logical values: `TRUE`

and/or `FALSE`

. In
case a certain logical expression (the condition) evaluates to `TRUE`

, the corresponding
code should be executed. Otherwise (else), i.e., when the condition evaluates to `FALSE`

,
that code should not be executed but possibly a different sequence of commands.

**Just as a brief recap:**

*Relational operators*:`<`

,`>`

,`<=`

,`>=`

,`==`

,`!=`

.*Logical operators*:`!`

,`&`

,`|`

,`&&`

,`||`

,`xor()`

.*Value matching*:`%in%`

,`! ... %in%`

(character operations).

**Some examples:**

- Relational operators (
`x > y`

). - Logical operators (
`x & y`

). - Value matching (
`"Marc" %in% names`

). `all()`

,`any()`

,`all.equal()`

.- Combinations of them (e.g.,
`all(y < 0) | "Marc" %in% names`

).

**Note:** Logical expressions can also evaluate to `NA`

(try `NA > 3`

) which will
result in an error when used for conditional execution. Thus, this may have to be
considered when designing code.

### Short and long form

As shown above, there are two forms (short vs. long) for the logical *AND* and *OR* operators `&`

/`|`

vs. `&&`

|`||`

.

*Short form*:`&`

and`|`

perform an elementwise comparison, possibly recycling one of the arguments to obtain two arguments of the same length. They return a logical vector of the same length as the objects compared.*Long form*:`&&`

and`||`

always only return a single`TRUE`

or`FALSE`

. These expressions evaluate their arguments left to right, examining only the first element of each vector. Evaluation proceeds only until the result is determined. For example, if the first argument in a`&&`

comparison is`FALSE`

the second argument is not evaluated as it is already clear that the result will be`FALSE`

.

Some examples of logical expressions/comparison:

```
c(TRUE, TRUE, FALSE, FALSE)
l1 <- c(TRUE, FALSE, TRUE, FALSE)
l2 <-& l2 l1
```

`## [1] TRUE FALSE FALSE FALSE`

The logical *AND* (`&`

) is `TRUE`

if the corresponding elements in both vectors are `TRUE`

.
Here, this is only the case for the first element as `l1[1]`

and `l2[1]`

are both `TRUE`

while for the remaining elements at least one of the elements (or both) are `FALSE`

.

The logical *OR* (`|`

) works similarly but is `TRUE`

if at at least `l1`

or `l2`

are `TRUE`

(or both).

Last but not least we have the logical *XOR* (`xor()`

, exclusive *OR*) which is `TRUE`

if
either `l1`

or `l2`

are `TRUE`

*but not both*. For comparing the operators we set up the following matrix:

`cbind(l1, l2, AND = l1 & l2, OR = l1 | l2, XOR = xor(l1, l2))`

```
## l1 l2 AND OR XOR
## [1,] TRUE TRUE TRUE TRUE FALSE
## [2,] TRUE FALSE FALSE TRUE TRUE
## [3,] FALSE TRUE FALSE TRUE TRUE
## [4,] FALSE FALSE FALSE FALSE FALSE
```

In addition to these “vectorized” logical comparisons, we have the long-form
operators `&&`

and `||`

that (a) always just return a single logical value and
(b) only evaluate their arguments (left to right) until the resulting logical
value is determined. In practice, (a) is useful in conditional execution where just
a single logical value is needed and (b) is useful to save computation time.

For the two vectors `l1`

and `l2`

the long-form operators yield the following results:

`&& l2 l1 `

```
## Warning in l1 && l2: 'length(x) = 4 > 1' in coercion to 'logical(1)'
## Warning in l1 && l2: 'length(x) = 4 > 1' in coercion to 'logical(1)'
```

`## [1] TRUE`

`|| l2 l1 `

`## Warning in l1 || l2: 'length(x) = 4 > 1' in coercion to 'logical(1)'`

`## [1] TRUE`

Both of the results really just depend on the comparison of `l1[1]`

and `l2[1]`

while the comparisons for the remaining elements are ignored. Furthermore,
`l1 && l2`

really needs to evaluate both arguments to assure that both of them
are `TRUE`

while `l1 || l2`

already stops after the first argument as this
is already `TRUE`

.

### Functions

In addition to these operators, a series of useful functions exist which can be used in conditional execution. We have already seen some of them in the previous chapters.

`all()`

: Are all elements`TRUE`

?`any()`

: Is at least one element`TRUE`

?`all.equal()`

: Are two objects (nearly) equal?

The first two always return one single logical element (either `TRUE`

or `FALSE`

) or a
single missing value (`NA`

) and no longer a vector. Thus, they are used
frequently in combination with conditional execution. The function `all.equal()`

either returns `TRUE`

or a character vector that describes the differences between
the objects compared.

For illustration reconsider the vector `l1`

introduced above. As it contains both
`TRUE`

and `FALSE`

values, `all()`

is `FALSE`

while `any()`

is `TRUE`

.

`all(l1)`

`## [1] FALSE`

`any(l1)`

`## [1] TRUE`

`all.equal()`

is used for checking whether two objects, specifically two numeric vectors,
are nearly equal. As we have already seen in Chapter 4 the `==`

comparison may sometimes be too strict as small differences may occur between
two numeric values due to the precision of arithmetic operations (e.g., recall
that `1.9 - 0.9 == 1.0`

evaluates to `FALSE`

).
Instead, `all.equal()`

avoids this problem by allowing for a small tolerance.

The function also works on vectors. As a motivational example: We know that
squaring the square root of `x`

should yield `x`

again. However, due to the
precision of the involved arithmetic operations (square root, power of 2)
the resulting vector `y`

is just *nearly equal* but not *identical*.

```
c(1, 2, 3, 4)
x <- sqrt(x)^2
y <-- x y
```

`## [1] 0.000000e+00 4.440892e-16 -4.440892e-16 0.000000e+00`

The differences are basically zero; `4.44e-16`

is \(4.44 \cdot 10^{-16}\),
a very tiny difference which can be ignored in most (but not all) applications. Therefore,
checking whether `x`

and `y`

are not identical and not all elements exactly equal but
all elements are nearly equal when allowing for a small tolerance.

`identical(y, x)`

`## [1] FALSE`

`all(y == x)`

`## [1] FALSE`

`all.equal(y, x)`

`## [1] TRUE`

Note, however, that `all.equal()`

only returns `TRUE`

if two objects are nearly equal
but not `FALSE`

if they are not. Instead, a character description of the differences is returned
in that case. Here, this is illustrated by comparing the given vector `x`

with its
square root which in this case is obviously not equal.

`all.equal(sqrt(x), x)`

`## [1] "Mean relative difference: 0.7488414"`

### isTRUE() and isFALSE()

In conditional executation we rely on a single logical value, i.e., either `TRUE`

or
`FALSE`

. However, given that some logical comparisons may also return `NA`

and
`all.equal()`

may return a character vector, it is often handy to turn such values
into `TRUE`

or `FALSE`

as well. This is the purpose of the functions `isTRUE()`

and `isFALSE()`

which - as their names convey - check whether their argument is a single
`TRUE`

or `FALSE`

, respectively.

For example, `isTRUE()`

is often used in combination with `all.equal()`

to give `TRUE`

if two objects are nearly equal and `FALSE`

if not. With the vectors `x`

and `y`

from
the example above:

`isTRUE(all.equal(y, x))`

`## [1] TRUE`

`isTRUE(all.equal(sqrt(x), x))`

`## [1] FALSE`

Another typical application of `isTRUE()`

is to yield `FALSE`

rather than `NA`

in logical
comparisons that include missing values. For illustration, consider the following vector
`x`

with two positive numbers and a missing values. If we wanted to assure that all elements
of `x`

are positive, we might use `all(x > 0)`

but this is `NA`

in this case.

```
c(10, 20, NA)
x <-> 0 x
```

`## [1] TRUE TRUE NA`

`all(x > 0)`

`## [1] NA`

By combining this with `isTRUE()`

we can enforce a (non-missing) logical value. Here, this
tells us that not all elements of `x`

are positive.

`isTRUE(all(x > 0))`

`## [1] FALSE`

## 7.2 If statements

Based on the logical expression discussed above we can now declare the conditions that control the flow of scripts or functions. Let us start with the most basic version: a single if statement.

**Basic usage:** `if (<condition>) { <action> }`

.

- The
`<condition>`

has to be a single logical`TRUE`

or`FALSE`

. - If
`<condition>`

is evaluated to`TRUE`

, the`<action>`

is executed.

For example we want *R* to inform us via `cat()`

that the variable `x`

is
smaller than `10`

in case this is true.

```
8
x <-if (x < 10) { cat("x is smaller than 10\n") }
```

`## x is smaller than 10`

The *condition* (here: `x < 10`

) is always within round brackets `if (...)`

,
the *action* is everything between the curly brackets (`{ ... }`

). If the
condition is evaluated to `FALSE`

no action is executed, e.g., when `x`

is `12`

.

```
12
x <-if (x < 10) { cat("x is smaller than 10\n") }
```

### Alternative syntax

Similar to the body of functions (see Chapter 6.9) the actions corresponding to if-statements can be written in separate lines or in a single line. Provided that the action consists of a single command only, it is also possible to omit the curly brackets, otherwise these are required. Hence all the following examples are equivalent.

**Version 1:** In separate lines.

```
if (x < 10) {
cat("x is smaller than 10\n")
}
```

**Version 2:** In a single line.

`if (x < 10) { cat("x is smaller than 10\n") }`

**Version 3:** In a single line without brackets.

`if (x < 10) cat("x is smaller than 10\n")`

For more complex actions version 1 is the preferred one while for very simple actions version 3 is also frequently used.

## 7.3 If-else statements

The next extension of if-statements are if-else statements. In contrast to
if-statements they have an additional `else`

clause which is executed whenever
the (if-)condition is evaluated to `FALSE`

.

**Basic usage:**

- Structure:
`if (<condition>) { <action 1> } else { <action 2> }`

. - If
`<condition>`

is evaluated to`TRUE`

,`<action 1>`

is executed. Else`<action 2>`

is executed.

Let us take the same example as above where we check if a certain number is smaller than 10.

```
8
x <-if (x < 10) {
print("x is smaller than 10")
else {
} print("x is larger or equal to 10")
}
```

`## [1] "x is smaller than 10"`

### Alternative syntax

Again, if-else statements can be written in different ways. The three versions below are equivalent an all do the very same thing.

**Version 1:** The preferred one.

```
if (x < 10) {
print("x is smaller than 10")
else {
} print("x is larger or equal to 10")
}
```

`## [1] "x is smaller than 10"`

**Version 2:** One-liner.

`if (x < 10) { print("x is smaller than 10") } else { print("x is larger or equal to 10") }`

`## [1] "x is smaller than 10"`

**Version 3:** Without brackets.

`if (x < 10) print("x is smaller than 10") else print("x is larger or equal to 10")`

`## [1] "x is smaller than 10"`

These one-line forms are sometimes useful to make the code a bit more compact. However, they are harder to read, thus we recommend to use the first version (multiple lines, with curly brackets).

## 7.4 Nested conditions

If-else statements can also be nested. Nested means that one of the actions
itself contains another if-else statement. Important: the two if-else statements
are *independent*.

**An example:**

```
10
x <-# 'Outer' if-else statement.
if (x < 10) {
print("x is smaller than 10")
else {
} # 'Inner' if-else statement.
if (x > 10) {
print("x is larger than 10")
else {
} print("x is exactly 10")
} }
```

`## [1] "x is exactly 10"`

The procedure is the same as for a single if-else statement. The most outer is
evaluated first. In case we end up in the `else`

block of the ‘Outer’ if-else statement,
we need to evaluate the second – ‘Inner’ – if-else condition.

- Outer if-else statement: Is
`x < 10`

?`FALSE`

: execute action in the else-block of the outer if-else statement. - Inner if-else statement: Is
`x > 10`

?`FALSE`

: execute action in the else-block of the inner if-else statement, print`"x is exactely 10"`

).

## 7.5 Multiple if-else statements

Instead of nested (independent) if-conditions we can once again extend the concept by adding multiple if-else conditions in one statement. The difference to nested conditions is that this is one single large statement, not several smaller independent ones.

**Basic usage:**

- Structure:
`if (<condition 1>) { <action 1> } else if (<condition 2>) { <action 2> } else { <action 3> }`

. - If
`<condition 1>`

evaluates to`TRUE`

,`<action 1>`

is executed. - Else
`<condition 2>`

is evaluated. If`TRUE`

,`<action 2>`

is executed. - Else,
`<action 3>`

is executed (if both,`<condition 1>`

and`<condition 2>`

, evaluate to`FALSE`

).

**Required parts:**

- Not limited to only 2 conditions.
- Always needs one (and no more than one)
`if`

. - Can have 1 or more
`else if`

s. - Can have no or 1 else-block (optional).

We can achieve the same result as above (Nested conditions) by writing the following statement.

```
10
x <-if (x < 10) {
print("x is smaller than 10")
else if (x > 10) {
} print("x is larger than 10")
else {
} print("x is exactly 10")
}
```

This achieves the same result as the following statement which has no else-block.

```
10
x <-if (x < 10) {
print("x is smaller than 10")
else if (x > 10) {
} print("x is larger than 10")
else if (x == 10) {
} print("x is exactly 10")
}
```

**Else or no else:** This strongly depends on the task. One advantage of else-block is
that it captures all cases which are not considered by one of the conditions above.
Thus, the else-block is something like the “fallback case”. In some other scenarios
you only want to execute something if a strict condition is `TRUE`

or do nothing.
In such cases an else-block is not necessary.

**Exercise 7.1 **We have a variable `x`

with one single numeric values and two different
if-statements with the following conditions:

**Version 1:**`if (x < 10)`

,`else if (x > 10)`

, and`else`

.**Version 2:**`if (x < 10)`

,`else if (x > 10)`

,`else if (x == 10)`

(no else).

**Two questions to think about:**

- What if
`x`

is set to`NA`

(`x <- NA`

)? Will we end up in the else-block of statement ‘Version 1’ and get the`"x is exactely 10"`

(which is wrong)? - Would it be better to use ‘Version 2’ without an else-block?

*Solution*. The answer is **no** to both questions.

One could think that the `NA`

ends up in the else-block, but that is not true.
As we have learned above, conditions *must* always evaluate to a logical `TRUE`

or `FALSE`

.
`NA < 10`

results in an `NA`

and *R* will throw an error when trying to evaluate the
first condition (`if (x < 10)`

). Thus, we will not unexpectedly end up in the else-block.

To answer the second question: There is no benefit of the second version. We check if
`x < 10`

and `x > 10`

. The only option left is `x == 10`

, thus, in this case both
are fail-save and do the very same.

In some situations it is not the case that there is only one option left, and you need to think if you want to have an else-block which captures everything else (or whatever your forgot), or if you want to add another explicit if-clause for specific cases.

**Exercise 7.2 **Below you can find a code chunk with a series of conditions.
Try to read the code and think about what is going on without
actually executing the code!

**Possible answers**

- Does not work, an error occurs.
`"x is larger than 10."`

will be printed.`"x is smaller or equal to 10."`

will be printed.- Nothing will be printed.

```
# (1) x is defined as 4
4
x <-
# (2) if-statement
if (x < 10) {
100
x <-
}
# (3) if-else statement
if (x > 10) {
print("x is larger than 10.")
else {
} print("x is smaller or equal to 10.")
}
```

*Solution*. The correct answer is (3) `"x is larger than 10."`

is printed.

- Initializing
`x <- 4`

. `x < 10`

is`TRUE`

, wherefore`x`

will be re-declared and set to`x <- 100`

.`x`

is now`100`

and thus`x > 10`

is`TRUE`

:`"x is larger than 10."`

is printed.

## 7.6 Return values

If-statements are not functions, but they still have a return value.
By default, this return is not visible, but we can make use of it.
The last time we are using the same example/statement, except that
we do *not print* the character string, but return it and store
the result (return value) on `desc`

.

```
200
x <- if (x < 10) {
desc <-"x is smaller than 10"
else if (x > 10) {
} "x is larger than 10"
else if (x == 10) {
} "x is exactly 10"
}# Print return value
print(desc)
```

`## [1] "x is larger than 10"`

**To break it down:** The second condition evaluates to `TRUE`

. If
we remove everything related to the if-else statement which is (i)
unused or (ii) only used for the statement itself, we basically
end up with this:

` "x is larger than 10" desc <-`

**Note:** This only works for checks where the condition evaluates
to a single `TRUE`

or `FALSE`

. We can not use these if and if-else
statements element-wise on a vector. To do so, we need to use the
vectorized if.

## 7.7 Vectorized if

There is a special function which allows perform an if-else statement element by element for each element of a vector (or matrix).

**Function:** `ifelse()`

for conditional element selection.

**Arguments:**`ifelse(test, yes, no)`

, where all arguments can be vectors of the same length (recycled if necessary). Works with matrices as well.**Return:**Vector which contains`yes`

elements if`test`

is`TRUE`

, else`no`

elements.- Note: All elements of
`yes`

and`no`

are always evaluated.

Practical example: we would like to find out if an numeric value is odd (ungerade) or even (gerade). This can be done using the modulo operator (see Vectors: Mathematical operations).

If the numeric value is divisible by 2 with rest 0, it is an even number,
else odd. Two examples: `4 %% 2`

returns `0`

as \(2 \cdot 2 = 4\), rest \(0\), thus \(4\) must be
an even number. `5 %% 2`

returns `1`

as \(2 \cdot 2 = 4\), rest \(1\), thus \(5\) must be odd.

` 1:6) (x <-`

`## [1] 1 2 3 4 5 6`

`%% 2 == 0 # Rest 0? x `

`## [1] FALSE TRUE FALSE TRUE FALSE TRUE`

`x %% 2 == 0`

is our test-condition. We now want to return `"even"`

if this
is `TRUE`

for a specific element in `x`

, and `"odd"`

if not.
This can be done as follows:

```
# test yes no
ifelse(x %% 2 == 0, "even", "odd")
```

`## [1] "odd" "even" "odd" "even" "odd" "even"`

Another example: We will again test if a number is odd or even. If even, return
`x`

, else return `-x`

. In this case the two arguments ‘no’/‘yes’ to `ifelse()`

are vectors. Thus, all odd numbers should now be negative odd numbers, all even
numbers should stay positive.

```
# test yes no
ifelse(x %% 2 == 0, x, -x)
```

`## [1] -1 2 -3 4 -5 6`

Here all three arguments are vectors; `x %% 2 == 0`

is a logical vector of length 6,
`x`

and `-x`

are two numeric vectors of the same length. If the test-condition
evaluates to `TRUE`

for a specific element the corresponding value from `x`

is returned,
else from `-x`

.

**Matrices:** `ifelse()`

also works with matrices. In case the input for the
condition/test is a matrix, a matrix of the same size will be returned. The
vectorized if works on the underlying vector, but adds the matrix attributes
again at the end.

```
matrix(1:12, nrow = 3,
(x <-dimnames = list(paste("Row", 1:3), paste("Col", LETTERS[1:4]))))
```

```
## Col A Col B Col C Col D
## Row 1 1 4 7 10
## Row 2 2 5 8 11
## Row 3 3 6 9 12
```

`ifelse(x %% 2 == 0, x, -x)`

```
## Col A Col B Col C Col D
## Row 1 -1 4 -7 10
## Row 2 2 -5 8 -11
## Row 3 -3 6 -9 12
```

**Exercise 7.3 ****Exercise A:** Start with a vector `y <- 1:10`

. If the element in `y`

is
odd (ungerade), add `+ 1`

. If even (gerade), leave it as it is. The result should look as follows:

`## [1] 2 2 4 4 6 6 8 8 10 10`

**Exercise B:** We will use some random numbers. For reproducibility we set
a seed first:

```
set.seed(123)
rnorm(10) y <-
```

`y`

now contains 10 numeric values. Use `ifelse()`

to replace all negative
values with `"neg"`

and all others with `"pos"`

. If your seed is set correctly
the result should be:

`## [1] "neg" "neg" "pos" "pos" "pos" "pos" "pos" "neg" "neg" "neg"`

**Exercise C** Working with two matrices, requires a logical and or or for the
condition (test).

` matrix(c(10, 0, -3, 15), nrow = 2)) (mat1 <-`

```
## [,1] [,2]
## [1,] 10 -3
## [2,] 0 15
```

` matrix(c(3, -1, -4, 17), nrow = 2)) (mat2 <-`

```
## [,1] [,2]
## [1,] 3 -4
## [2,] -1 17
```

Use `ifelse()`

, return `NA`

when both, the element in `mat1`

and in `mat2`

, are negative.
Else return `0`

.

```
## [,1] [,2]
## [1,] 0 NA
## [2,] 0 0
```

*Solution*. **Solution for exercise A**

If `y %% 2 == 0`

(even) return the elements from `y`

as they are, if not (odd)
use `y + 1`

.

```
1:10
y <-ifelse(y %% 2 == 0, y, y + 1)
```

`## [1] 2 2 4 4 6 6 8 8 10 10`

We could of course also modify our test and ask for odd numbers (instead of even numbers).
In this case we would also have to exchange the values for `yes`

and `no`

to get the correct
result:

```
1:10
y <-ifelse(y %% 2 != 0, y + 1, y)
```

`## [1] 2 2 4 4 6 6 8 8 10 10`

**Solution for exercise B**

If `y < 0`

replace the element with `"neg"`

, else with `"pos"`

.

`## [1] "neg" "neg" "pos" "pos" "pos" "pos" "pos" "neg" "neg" "neg"`

As `"neg"`

and `"pos"`

are character vectors of length 1, while `y`

is of
length 10, they will simply be recycled. Does the very same as the following
line of code where we replicate `"neg"`

and `"pos"`

10 times.

`ifelse(y < 0, rep("neg", times = length(y)), rep("pos", times = length(y)))`

`## [1] "neg" "neg" "pos" "pos" "pos" "pos" "pos" "neg" "neg" "neg"`

**Solution for exercise C**

The condition is `mat1 < 0 & mat2 < 0`

which is `TRUE`

when the elements
in both values are below zero. If `TRUE`

, return an `NA`

, else `0`

.

```
matrix(c(10, 0, -3, 15), nrow = 2)
mat1 <- matrix(c(3, -1, -4, 17), nrow = 2)
mat2 <-ifelse(mat1 < 0 & mat2 < 0, NA, 0)
```

```
## [,1] [,2]
## [1,] 0 NA
## [2,] 0 0
```

## 7.8 Sanity checks

A typical application for single if-statements are input checks of a
function or before proceeding to the computations and are often
used in combination with `stop()`

or `warning()`

.

`stop()`

: Will show an error warning and immediately stop execution.`warning()`

: Issues a warning, but the program will still be executed.

When used inside functions, this is called a sanity check. Sanity checks should be at the very beginning of the instructions of a function and check if the arguments are sane, or if the function should throw an error because the inputs are wrong.

Let us combine functions and if-statements to write a small example. We would
like to have a function which calculates the square root of *one single*
numeric value, a mathematical operation which is invalid for negative numbers.

### Long form

Our function has one input argument `x`

. Before we start the calculation,
we check if the input argument `x`

is valid. We will check for the three
conditions below – if one is violated, we will stop execution and throw an error. Else
we return the square root of argument `x`

.

`x`

must be numeric.`x`

must be of length 1.`x`

must be positive.

The function we are looking for looks as follows:

```
# Custom square root function
function(x) {
custom_sqrt <-# Sanity check
if (!is.numeric(x)) stop("Argument 'x' must be numeric!")
if (!length(x) == 1L) stop("Argument 'x' must be of length 1!")
if (x < 0) stop("Argument 'x' must be positive (>= 0)!")
# If not yet run into an error, do the calculation and return result
sqrt(x)
res <-return(res)
}
```

If we call the function with a valid argument, the function should return the desired result. Else one of the above error messages should show up – and the execution is immediately stopped.

```
# Working examples
custom_sqrt(9.0)
```

`## [1] 3`

`custom_sqrt(25L) # Remember: integers are also numeric`

`## [1] 5`

`custom_sqrt("17") # Error: not numeric`

`## Error in custom_sqrt("17"): Argument 'x' must be numeric!`

`custom_sqrt(vector("numeric", 0)) # Error: length is zero (not equal to 1)`

`## Error in custom_sqrt(vector("numeric", 0)): Argument 'x' must be of length 1!`

`custom_sqrt(c(1, 2, 3)) # Error: length > 1`

`## Error in custom_sqrt(c(1, 2, 3)): Argument 'x' must be of length 1!`

`custom_sqrt(-3) # Error: no positive numeric value`

`## Error in custom_sqrt(-3): Argument 'x' must be positive (>= 0)!`

The `sqrt()`

function implemented in base *R* does something similar, except
that it also works for vectors with length \(> 1\) and only warns us if we apply it to negative
values (returns `NaN`

; see Missing values).
However, when the input argument is a character we will get an error similar to
our custom function.

`sqrt(c(1, 2, 3))`

`## [1] 1.000000 1.414214 1.732051`

`sqrt(c(-3, -1, 1, 3))`

`## Warning in sqrt(c(-3, -1, 1, 3)): NaNs produced`

`## [1] NaN NaN 1.000000 1.732051`

`sqrt("foo")`

`## Error in sqrt("foo"): non-numeric argument to mathematical function`

### Short form

Instead of using three different checks in `custom_sqrt()`

and three
different error messages we could also combine everything in one single
check using a logical `|`

(or `||`

). Let us re-declare the function:

```
# Custom square root function
function(x) {
custom_sqrt <-if (!is.numeric(x) || !length(x) == 1 || x < 0) stop("wrong input")
return(sqrt(x))
}
```

- Advantage: The function requires less typing and looks simpler.
- Disadvantage: When an error is thrown, you will always get the same
error message (
`"wrong input"`

), but you don’t really get any information what went wrong.

Some error messages are very easy to interpret and you immediately know what went wrong, while others look more sarcastic then helpful (see below). Having precise error messages can sometimes save hours of debugging and searching for the actual problem. Thus, rather write multiple separate checks than one large one with a super general error message.

### Additional functions

There are few additional functions which might be of interest in combination with sanity checks. You will not need them to solve the exercises in this book, but these functions are very handy to simplify sanity checks.

Command | Description |
---|---|

`stopifnot()` |
Throws an error if not evaluated to `TRUE` . |

`inherits()` |
Check of object contains a specific class. |

`match.arg()` |
Check if an input is allowed. |

`file.exists()` |
Check if a file exists. |

`dir.exists()` |
Check if a directory exists. |

The examples below show some minimal examples how these commands work.

**Stop if not:** `stopifnot()`

is a short version of `if (!...) stop("error message")`

and throws an automatically generated error message if the logical expression evaluates
to `FALSE`

(stop if not `TRUE`

; see `?stopifnot`

).

```
function(x) {
test_stopifnot <-stopifnot(is.numeric(x))
print(x)
}test_stopifnot("character")
```

`## Error in test_stopifnot("character"): is.numeric(x) is not TRUE`

This could also be written as follows (with a custom error message).

```
function(x) {
test_stopifnot <-if (!is.numeric(x)) stop("x must be numeric")
return(x)
}test_stopifnot("character")
```

`## Error in test_stopifnot("character"): x must be numeric`

**Inherits:** Argument `x`

in the next function must either be a matrix or a character
vector. `inherits()`

checks if the return of `class()`

of an object contains a specific
class name.

```
function(x) {
test_inherits <-stopifnot(inherits(x, c("matrix", "character")))
return(x)
}test_inherits(2L)
```

`## Error in test_inherits(2L): inherits(x, c("matrix", "character")) is not TRUE`

In this case, `2L`

is of class `"integer"`

(check `class(2L)`

) wherefore the
test fails and an error is thrown. The same could be achieved differently, e.g.:

```
function(x) {
test_inherits <-if (!is.matrix(x) & !is.character(x)) stop("x must be a matrix or a character vector")
return(x)
}test_inherits(2L)
```

`## Error in test_inherits(2L): x must be a matrix or a character vector`

**Argument matching:** Another smart way to only allow for special inputs is
`match.arg()`

. An argument can be defined with a series of allowed values. We
can then check if the one provided by the user is actually among them.

```
function(x) {
test_matcharg <- match.arg(x, c("male", "female"))
x <-return(x)
}test_matcharg("female")
```

`## [1] "female"`

`test_matcharg("dog")`

`## Error in match.arg(x, c("male", "female")): 'arg' should be one of "male", "female"`

**Check if file exists:** When you write a function which reads from a file or
operates on a directory, `file.exists()`

and `dir.exists()`

can be used to
check if the file/directory really exists.

```
function(file) {
test_fileexists <-stopifnot(file.exists(file))
return(file)
}test_fileexists("my_dataset.rda")
```

`## Error in test_fileexists("my_dataset.rda"): file.exists(file) is not TRUE`

The same works for `dir.exists()`

to check if a directory exists. Checking a
directory and using if-conditions, this could look similar to the next
function:

```
function(dir) {
test_direxists <-if (!dir.exists(dir)) stop("Cannot find directory, does not exist.")
return(dir)
}test_direxists("Downloads")
```

`## Error in test_direxists("Downloads"): Cannot find directory, does not exist.`

Interested to learn more about **boolean algebra**?
Or even participating in the course “198812 VU Computer Programming Prerequisites”
by the DiSC? Feel free to have a look at
this tutorial
with boolean algebra exercises and how to do it in *R*.
This is optional material and **not part of the R programming course**!